It’s been said that in business, “cash is king.” In the financial world, your cash position is referred to as liquidity.
Liquidity is defined as,
“The ability to immediately cover debt obligations or expenses with cash or assets on hand.”
In other words, liquidity is your ability to pay your bills.
Liquidity is important to any agricultural business, yet it may have a heightened significance depending on what you produce, how long it takes you to produce it and how it’s sold or marketed.
Business owners often look at their balance sheet to assess their financial position, but long-term assets such as real estate can’t pay today’s expenses. This is where liquidity comes in.
How do you measure liquidity?
Liquidity is often measured by either a “current ratio” or “quick ratio.” The current ratio is comprised of all current assets (including inventory) compared to current liabilities. The quick ratio takes inventory out of the equation; it’s made up of cash and other assets that can be quickly converted to cash compared to current liabilities. Lenders consider the quick ratio as a key indicator of a business’s ability to meet short-term obligations, since inventory is not always able to be quickly converted to cash. This is especially true in operations where inventory may take a long time to be sold, i.e. nurseries, wineries, orchards, etc.
When liquidity is important
Liquidity’s importance in your operation’s overall financial picture depends on a few main factors. First, if an operation is small with low inventory and operates primarily on a cash basis, cash flow may be regular and frequent. In this case, liquidity is a less influential indicator of financial health since cash availability is more consistent throughout the year and money is not tied up in receivables or inventory.
In a larger, more inventory-heavy operation, liquidity takes on greater significance as an indicator of financial health.
For example, a crop grower who buys inputs in March but doesn’t get paid until that crop is marketed in the fall needs to account for bills due during the growing season. A nursery operator with considerable working capital tied up in planted trees or shrubs should also watch liquidity closely, considering the time and work required to sell that inventory and turn it into cash.
Factors influencing liquidity
In industry sectors like these, the importance of inventory puts a premium on closely managing liquidity. Without doing so, an otherwise healthy-looking balance sheet can be misleading if the business is going to rely on product inventory to pay operating expenses and debt.
Another factor that can have considerable influence on liquidity is the stage an operation sits in its overall life cycle. An established, mature operation will likely have fewer capital requirements compared with a newer, growing business because of the required investments for buildings, machinery and equipment as the business grows.
Regardless of size or what is produced, a downturn in market prices is a time when liquidity takes on greater significance. Low crop prices, for example, put greater pressure on cash flow than when prices are strong.
The bottom line
Liquidity is a key financial variable to watch, regardless of the structure of an agricultural business. It’s important to balance maintaining strong, short-term liquidity against opportunities for higher profits and in the broader context of making sound business decisions.
For a deeper dive into topics like liquidity, as well as budgeting, financial statements, and more, check out Farm Credit East’s GenerationNext program. This seminar series is optimal for producers who will be assuming greater management responsibilities within a farming, fishing or forest product business.